When I found this box at an estate sale, I was certain it was German. Through research I found a similar box and learned that it was not German, but rather Navajo and the pattern is called Whirling Logs.
The Whirling Logs pattern is a symbol of well-being and can be found in many cultures. Unfortunately it was used in a negative way during WWII. At that time the Navajo people discontinued using it in their artwork. Based on what I have read about this, I am putting the date of box prior to that, around the 1930s. Trinkets and jewelry with the Whirling Logs were sold as souvenirs for years out West. You will find more jewelry items with this pattern and very few wood boxes.